Mongolia, a landlocked country between the People's Republic of China and Russia, is surrounded by the two countries. Although Mongolia does not border the Kazakhstan border, its westernmost point is only 38 kilometers from the easternmost point of Kazakhstan. The capital and the largest city in the country is Ulaanbaatar, which accounts for 45% of the country's total population.
In the history of Mongolia, it was ruled by many nomadic peoples such as the Huns, Xianbei, Rouran, Turkic, and Khitan. In 1206 Genghis Khan established Greater Mongolia. In 1271 his grandson Kublai Khan established the Yuan Dynasty. After the demise, the Mongols returned to the Mongolian grasslands, but often clashed with the Ming Dynasty at the border. From the 16th to the 17th century, Mongolia began to be affected by Tibetan Buddhism. At the end of the 17th century, Mongolia was included in the rule of the Qing Dynasty. After the demise of the Qing Dynasty in 1911, Mongolia declared independence, but was not recognized internationally. It became independent under Russian control in 1921, and joined the United Nations in 1961 to start gaining international recognition. The Mongolian People's Republic, established in 1924, was under the influence of the Soviet Union. After the drastic changes in Eastern Europe, a democratic revolution broke out in Mongolia and was promulgated in 1992. A new constitution with a multi-party system began to transition to a market economy.
With a land area of 1,564,116 square kilometers, Mongolia is the 19th largest country in the world by land area and the second largest landlocked country after Kazakhstan. With a population of about 3 million people, it is the least densely populated country in the world. Mongolia has fewer arable land and most of its land is covered by grasslands. There are mountains in the north and west, and the Gobi Desert in the south. About 30% of the population is engaged in nomadic or semi-nomadic. The main religion is Tibetan Buddhism, and the main ethnic group is the Mongolian ethnic group. There are also ethnic minorities such as Kazak and Tuva in the west. GDP per capita is USD 4,168 (2014). Joined the World Trade Organization in 1997.